Every year eco – tourism is more popular, it helps people, tired from wordly
vanity, to fill in their lost forces and energy during communication with nature
and watching for it.
There are many interesting places in Russia, which are
suitable for ecotourism. By the way, right ecotourism. Swimming at the lake and
rivers, fishing, berries, Russian baths, fish soup – all of that help you to
fill your forces.
Social potential of ecotourism, defining as a kind of
tourism in the beginning of 90th years, may be considered as a considerable,
because in Russia as no other country, was developed sport tourism.
whole the nature itself represents the ideal conditions for successful
development of ecotourism:variety, uniqueness, attractiveness and extensiveness
of Russian landscapes.
There are 35 national parks, 100 state nature reserves
with total area – 33,5 millions hectares, 68 state nature preserves of federal
meaning, 2976 state nature preserves of regional meaning with total area – 67,8
million hectares, 1024 nature monuments, 31 natural parks of regional
meaning, with total area 13,2 million hectares.
Ecological tourism zones
The north in European part of Russia
The north in European part of Russia is a severe, silent tundra, endless
taiga forests, numerous lakes (among them and two biggest in Europe – Ladozhskoe
and Onezhskoe), brown karelian rivers, islands and fiords of the White sea.
These places have a big popularity among ecotourists and admirers of water
Spring and autumn this place becomes a refuge for migrate water birds,
especially ducks. In summer you can meet at these places eider duck, and also
watch for nesting birds, the largest one lives in the Kandalakshsky reserve. The
sea serves for them the place of permanent inhabitation of water mammals (seal,
sea hare) and season staying of cetacean.
Broad whitefish, peled,
cisco, whitefish, Arctic cisco, Siberian white salmon have a great meaning for
keeping them under ward.
Green circle includes itself seven conserved natural territories – three
preserves – Oksky, Prioksko-terrace, Central-forest and four national parks –
Ugra, Meschera, Plescheevo lake and Smolensk Poozerje. Each territory has its
peculiarities, its “visit card”. They are relic old fir-groves, oak woods and
pine forests, rare species of plants, animals and birds, picturesque landscapes,
bison nursery, a center on rehabilitation of bear-cubs-orphans and a nursery of
wild species of cranes, museums and monasteries. Travels about Green circle of
Moscow don’t require special physical training and special outfit.
national park of Sochi
It is one of the first parks in Russia. Its area is
191 thousands hectares, was created in 1983 year with an aim of keeping and
restoration of unique nature complexes on the territory along sea coast of the
Black sea from the river Shepsi to the river Psoy. But the north – east border
of the park comes along watershed of the Main Caucasus ridge. About 200 men of
state forest guarding serve the territory of the park in 15th forestry.
Here are grown 165 species of growing wild arboreal plants. Animal world of
the national park make up about 70 species of mammals animals: brown bear,
badger, dear, lynx, roe, marten, otter, lackal, wild cat, wild boar, hare,
squirrel, etc. There are about 120 thousands birds, birds of passages are
appeared in the forest in spring and autumn ( geese, motley woodpecker, swans,
pigeons, quail), and also dwell 11 species of reptile and 7 species of
About 40 river and streams of the Black Sea basin flow along the
territory of the national park, three of them have a length more than 50 km –
Mzmita, Shakhe, Psou.
The nature of Katun preserve is unique. Elements of temperate continental
relief of Alpine type with typical elements of central Asiatic extremely
continental relieves join here. The Katun ridge with the highest point of
Siberia, Belukha mountain, (4,506 m above the sea level) stretches from the
north-west to the south-east. Glaciation here is the largest in Altai (almost
400 glaciers with total area – about 300 sq km.
It is necessary to make one’s
way through obstructions of huge trunks of trees to see waterfalls here. The
spectacle is worth! The first two waterfalls vertically fall into a small cup,
raising heaps of sprays which are spread by the wind. Around – bare rocks. Their
color changes from red to grey, from yellow to almost black. The third waterfall
can be reached almost on all fours. Roots of trees, which can be used as stairs,
help. Rocks here are so high that tourists have to throw back their head to see
pine-trees, growing above. It seems as if the whole gorge is filled with the
waterfall. It fills the air with drops of water and, falling down from 75 m of
height, blows out and hits against stones, thunders, deafening.
The unique world of the Baikal coast is Tazheransk steppe: a shelter of
emperor’s eagle, a palette of blooming motley grass. Nowhere else in the world
you will meet tick trefoil zunduki, astragalus olchonensis, oxytrope. Landscape
of Tazheransk steppe is unique. The hills, as if rising out of eternity,
resemble dinosaurs. Parting they open the expanse for herds of swift-footed
horses. Tethers with coloured ribbons, a silhouette of eagle is seen in the blue
sky. Sensation of eternity and perfection of the world, created here, fill you
with peace and beauty.
In winter you may visit a castle of Snowy queen. Cape
Khoboi is turned into a fabulous ice castle. Heavy autumn waves remain on the
rocks as ice spills of intricate forms. Two wave-cut grottoes from the north
side of the cape turn into the halls of the icy palace. Cracks and margins of
huge hummocks are formed from the side of the Big Baikal near Khoboi.
Ushanjy islands are one of wonders of the Baikal. Ushanji are famous for
their seal. Here, in “Ushantchiki”, three small islands, there is its “beach”,
where it goes out to stones and basks in the sun. Now one may observe seal in
Tonkiy island. A viewing point was equipped with camouflage net and fit an
informational shield in Russian and English. For the most part Baikal is a very
beautiful but a severe krai. The snow lies on the slopes of its mountains even
Here there is water above ice of Ulakhan – Tarin. Frazil
“Ulakhan-Tarin”, yielding only Fedtchenko Peak in the Pamirs to its
sizes and power is situated here. Its width is 5-7 km, length – about 40 km,
thickness of the ice reaches 7 m.
Another sight is Pobeda Peak (3,147 m), the
highest point of the north-east of Siberia. Besides, on the territory of the
park there is a volcano Balagan-Taas, mountain massifs and drink water from
mineral springs, not yielding to famous Caucasian waters, and in some indices,
even surpassing them.
The delta of the Lena
Forest-tundra species penetrate here by the valley and mountain species – by
Kharaulaksky mountains (the northern part of Verkhoyansky ridge). Here there is
one of the largest preserve in Russia – Ust-Lena. Its area is 1,433 thousand ha.
Flora of the delta numbers about 370 sorts of higher plants, 106 sorts of
mosses, 74 sorts of lichens. 121 species of birds, 71 species of which marked
off in nesting, are found in the delta of the Lena. The most interesting nesting
species are Bewick’s swan, whooper-swan, brant, lesser white-fronted goose,
little and Siberian eiders, merlin, peregrine, golden eagle, Ross’ and Sabine’s
gulls. White crane and snow goose fly in. Black-capped marmot, northern creeper,
lemming vole are found in the mountains. White whale, narwhal, walrus, sea hare,
ringed seal are spread in the parts of the Laptev Sea, which are joining the
delta of the Lena, and at Novosibirsk islands.
A real masterpiece, a
decoration of the Lena river, the Lena poles, is created with the help of water,
heat and freezes. Colonnades, towers, arches, cathedrals, indented walls are
seen in their quaint form. Extension of the poles together with huge stone rocks
– farewell rocks – along the bank of the Lena is 80 km. The poles rise above the
Lena for several stages.
The Far East. Reserve “Cedar honeydew”
Surrounded with the Japan sea the southern part of the Far East is famous as
“northern jungles”, as a place, where the east, the west, the north and the
south combine in absolutely incredible way. Preserve “Cedar honeydew” is the
only place in Russia where Far-Eastern leopard is found. Black bear, wild boar,
roe, raccoon dog, badger, dappled deer are usual here. Rather rare birds nest
here. Among them: mandarin duck, azure-winged magpie, night-heron. Pheasants are
often found. And the Kedrovaya river is a good place for spawning of salmon
fishes: hunchback salmon, cherry salmon, Siberian salmon. Bog birch, wood of
which has special mechanical properties, are often found in the preserve.
Together with legendary ginseng Korean cedar pine (cedar Korean), Far-Eastern
lianas (actinidia, magnolia-vine, vine), spikenard, Eleuterococus, devil’-club,
Amur lilac, Amur corktree, 8 sorts of maples are also found.
two-hour walk about the ridges of Sikhote Alin, you will see subtropical forests
of unique beauty, picturesque sea coasts, solemn Siberian landscapes and
Lake Khanka and reserve “Khansky”
On the south of the Far East, near china border is situated an unusual place
of nature, which consists of unique water – bog land of lake Khanka basin. In
1990 year was formed the state nature reserve “Khansky”.
Lake Khanka is one
of the largest fresh water reservoir of Asia. Water – bog land of lake
Khanka - unique nature complex, where nesting and staying birds of
passages, and one can meet with rare and bog plants.
Kamchatka – is the most unique peninsula in Russia. Geysers
well out of the ground near the volcanoes and “pits” with blue alga, which can
live only in this water, resembling hot salty water in solution, boil up like
with boiling water. You will be amazed by abundance in snowy tops, waterfalls
and extensive malpaises. Slopes of the gorge shimmer with inconceivable colors,
and in Kronotsky preserve you may visit world-famous Valley of Geysers.
Sparkling jets of boiling water and steam suddenly blow out and rise for the
height of tens meters. Each geyser has its regime. It seems as if they replace
In summer and autumn rapid rivers of Kamchatka “boil” because of
numerous salmons, moving to spawning. Not far from Kurils lake in the south of
Kamchatka you will get a unique chance to observe brown bears, occupied with
fishing. Walking along the bank will permit to observe colonies of sea birds and
breeding-grounds of sea-lions, seals. Such rare expeditions as driving with the
help of dogs’ teams around the volcano and
“Narsans” – inhabitants call mineral waters of
Kamchatka of different taste properties and colors in this way – are found among
knolls and volcanoes. Some of the springs are so mineralized that the whole
periodic table accumulate around them in form of red, brown, grey thin
efflorescence or scale, forming many-colored glades and cascades – travertines.
And in the evenings hot bath waits for you. It is one of pleasures in
Kamchatka. Sometimes water of a mineral spring is so hot that it is diluted with
river water. Artificial pools with wooden bridges stand near the springs. But
most of natural “baths” are, so called, wild. In any case bathing take away
tiredness and blest repose spreads by the whole body.
The gone world of a primeval forest with numerous lakes and bogs, connected
by a net of brooks, give a refuge for the huge number of the most various birds
and animals. The forest is situated in the way of migration of many species of
birds. Innumerable flocks of gooses, swans, ducks and waders land here on the
way to the north, the tundra. The forest is a refuge for reindeer, elk, wolf,
brown bear, lynx, glutton, otter and marten. Among birds wood grouse and swallow
are usual. White-tailed eagle is met along the banks of rivers and lakes.
The delta of the Volga
The delta of the Volga is the largest and an ecologically clean in the
Europe. It is situated in the south-east of the central part of Russia. It
begins to the north from Astrakhan where the large arm – the Busan – separates.
For the whole its length from Astrakhan to rolls of the Caspian sea the delta is
various, main arms, width of which is 0.3 – 0.6 km, are divided into numerous
channels and branching creeks, width of which is up to 30 m. Where the Volga
flows into the Caspian sea it members about 800 mouths. Large spaces of the
delta are covered with flood-plain forests and reedbeds.
Saigas, gnawing animals, eagles, many reptiles and insects are usual in
the semi-deserts. Egrets, pelicans, wild boars are typical for the Volga
delta. About 500 sorts of plants, belonging to 82 families, were discovered on
the territory of the Volga. The richest plants of these families are geni of
wormwood, astragalus, sedge. Black, white-winged terns and scray are found in
the delta. Among owls Strix aluco Linn, marsh owl, owlet, eagle-owl, scops-owl
and long-eared owl are found in the lower reach of the Volga. You may also visit
“birds’ hotel”. This name was given to a preserve.
Over 250 species of birds, many of which are entered in Red Data Book, are
found in Astrakhan preserve in different season. Most of them are nested on the
trees (herons, glossy ibis, cormorant), and some of them build floating nests
(toadstools, bald-coots). Birds of Africa, Iran, India – huge flocks of swans,
gooses, ducks – nest here. Some species of birds – pelicans, herons, cormorants
– form colonies. A fabulous flower – lotus – of extraordinary size and color
grows in the preserve! It is known in the Delta of the Volga for more than 200
years. Here it is called Caspian rose. Plantations of lotus – a sea of
blue-green leafs and pink flowers, exhaling soft aroma, - blossom from July to
September. Eastern peoples consider lotus a symbol of purity and nobility.
The Central Siberia
Only here you may see endless primeval taiga expanses, rivers and lakes with
pure water, rich flora and fauna. Landscapes of these places are picturesque and
various: parks sandy pineries in the west, reserved cedar forests in the valley
of the Yenisei river, dark coniferous forests, difficult of traverse, in the
east, detritus and rocky precipices along the river banks, huge massifs of bogs
in the watersheds. The basin of the middle Yenisei is the largest forest tract.
It is a taiga, taiga and again taiga.
The western part of the Big Caucasus is various in flora and fauna, their
protection is not equal led not only in the Caucasian region but also among
other mountain areas of the Europe and Western Asia. It is a territory, where
large number of rare precinctive and relic sorts of plants and animals, being at
stake of disappearance, are concentrated.
The territory is rich in picturesque objects: powerful waterfalls, pointed
mountain tops (up to 3,360 m), rapid mountain rivers with clear water, clear
mountain lakes, huge trees (imposing firs, height of which is up to 85 m and
diameter – more than 2 m), rare plants (orchids and others) and many others.
Invaluable natural complexes have been kept in the Western Caucasus.
Teberda is a mountain climatic resort, situated at height of
1,260-1,300 m in the forest mountains of the western Caucasus, where a fan of
very picturesque gorges stretches to a snow-covered heap of the Main Caucasian
ridge. Not far there is a heart of alpinism and mountain tourism of Russia
Dombai. It is an area of the primeval Caucasian nature and monuments of olden
times, an area of the sun, rocks, fir forests, dazzling sparkling snow and
Elbrus region is a tourist name of a part of the Bolshoi
Caucasus from the western approaches to Elbrusto the basin of the Tchegem river
to the east. Its south border passes by the Main Caucasian ridge. High clarity
of the air and great number of hours of sunshine create here wonderful
conditions both in summer and in winter. In number of sunny days the Elbrus
region doesn’t yield to such resorts as Dombai, Teberda, Krasnaya Polyana. A
park of the Elbrus region admits 300 thousand visitors per a year.
Fauna of the Elbrus region is also various and rich in
unique species, which are found nowhere else. They are Caucasian tur, Caucasian
snowcock, , Caucasian black grouse, Caucasian lizard and ground beetle and
others. Traces of wild boars, the number of which is large in mountain forests,
are also found.