Kislovodsk Sights and the history of the spring
Resting people and guests call it “city of the Sun”. Number of sunny days a year is almost two times as much than in Pyatigorsk or Essentuki. But the main riches and proud of the resort is mineral springs. Narzan – the largest spring of Caucasian Mineral Waters - made Kislovodsk world-famous. From Turkic “nart sane” is translated as “bogatyr’s water”.
Splendid names, decorating the great Russian art, such as P. I. Shalyapin, S. V. Rakhmaninov, A. A. Alyabjev, are connected with the city. The great Russian artist-portraitist and landscape painter N. A. Yaroshenko.
The nature and geographic peculiaritiesSub-Alpine meadows stretches on the slopes of the mountains, surrounding Kislovodsk, the city is buried in verdure of squares, flower beds and a park, area of which is 1340 ha. There are more than 250 sorts of conifers and deciduous trees, including such exotic trees as Chinese Pulownia, corkwood and others.
Kislovodsk is located in the picturesque valley, surrounded with slopes of the main Caucasian ridge. Extension of the valley from the south-east to the north-west is about 4 km. It is a lower terrace of Betchasinsky plateau which, constantly arising to the south-west, forms Bermamitskie altitudes, bordering upon Elbrus, situated in 90 km from Kislovodsk. The valley is formed of gorges of 2 interflowing rivers – the Olkhovka and the Berezvka, which flow into the Podkumok river.
From the east the city is protected with hills, which are connected with each other by small knolls and a chain of cretaceous mountains, forming the middle part of Dzinalskiy ridge (height is up to 1,500 m). from the west the valley is bounded by a high range of hills, forming Birch gorge, from the south – Kabardinsky ridge, height of which is up to 1600 m and from the north – by a ridge of cretaceous mountains of Borgustansky ridge, reaching height 1,200 m above sea level.
The history of the spring1803 is considered to be a date of foundation of the resort though the first official visit of sick men was carried out in 1808 – 1809. Chemist Y. Rainegs was the first who described Kislovodsk narzan in 1784. The first wooden bathhouses were built in 1812, people took a bath of undiluted cold narzan. A magnificent restoration of that time with a colonnade and wide stairs, descending to the park, was built by project of brothers Bernordatssy in 1822 on money, which were budgeted by the government. Building of a state hotel began near the spring and a resort park was laid in 1823. Narzan gallery, existing up to the present, was built in 1848-1858, Kursaal (now a theater) – in 1895.
Enlivening of resort building and increase of afflux of sick men in Kislovodsk at the end of 19 century were conditioned by finish of building of highway Mineral Waters – Kislovodsk and mainly by leading of a branch line to Kislovodsk. Number of bathes in Narzan gallery increased in 1880; a small plant on bottling of mineral water.
A stone building of the Narzan gallery, building of which had lasted 10 years and finished in 1858, has survived to our time. Architect S. I. Upton built the gallery in medieval English style. A wonderful music bandstand, which was called crystal for high acoustics.
Intensive private building was carried out in Kislovodsk at the beginning of XX century (dachas, rest homes, hotels). Kislovodsk becomes the famous resort which, however, was visited only representatives of privileged classes. Over 25,000 people received treatment in Kislovodsk already in 1904. During I World War visiting the waters stopped at all and the resort was turned into a huge hospital for wounded men and disabled veterans.
Systematic development of the resort began after the revolution of 1917. A clinic department of Pyatigorsk balneal institute, at present time Cardiologic clinic, which has become a guidance center of the resort, was founded already in 1921. New sanatoriums, resort polyclinics, institution for mud-cure were built. Besides the only (till 1928) spring Narzan, waters of another 6 springs, including Dolomitniy Narzan (well N 7, 1928), Sulfate narzan (well N 8, 1934), were led out.
A building of October baths for 60 cabins, which looked nobly, was comfortable, had compact enclose pattern, abundance of the air and light and had a depository of Narzan, capacity of which made up 400 cubic meter, was built in the central part of the city, near the main baths, by project of architect P. P. Eskov in 1928. An old plant on bottling of narzan was erected again and mechanized in the same year. An institution for mud-cure, supplying al sick persons, coming to the resort, with silt sulfide mud of the Tambukanskoe lake (carrying capacity is up to 300 patients).
Wonderful sanatorium of Sergo Ordzhonikidze with 500 beds, which was built by project of architects Ginzburg, Popov, Vakhtangov and Shpalek, was put in operation in 1935-1938. It remains the most comfortable sanatorium of the resort to our time.
All sanatoriums and patient care institutions of the resort were fully restored, great hydrogeological pioneerings, which increased reserves of narzan for balneal aims, were carried out by 1950. New building and accomplishment of the city began together with recovery works.
In Kislovodsk there are 15 therapeutic institutions which qualified to supply the city population with the health. Modern blocks of the hospital, having therapeutic, surgical, cardiologic, eye departments, equipped with modern diagnostic apparatuses, are seen at the entrance into Kislovodsk. The hospital-polyclinic complex was put into service in 1987.
SightsNatural landscape allows to form routes, total length of which makes up 70 km, where distances, angle of slope and height above sea level are strictly dosed and it allows to originate individual programs of rehabilitation for cardiologic sick men. In Kislovodsk Terrainkur there are three control medical points: in Narzan gallery, Temple of the air and Red sun where control of indicies of hemodynamics and acceptability of a walk.
A luxurious two-storied restaurant with colonnade and a stair, descending to the park and the spring, was built above spring Narzan on money which had been budgeted by the government by project of brothers Bernardatsies. A grotto (now Lermontovsky) was arranged under the stairs. In the restaurant there was an extensive hall for dancings, balls and also apartments for visitors.
Narzan gallery was built in medieval English style in 1848-1953 by architects S. Upton, H. Fransua. In it there is “Boiling well” (a spring of Narzan), drinking well-rooms, a resort library with reading-room. Number of resort institutions in Kislovodsk is larger than in all other cities-resorts. Besides a developed medical base, it attracts by magnificence of the nature. One of such places is legendary Ring-mountain, more precisely, a reach-through hole in it. A moment, when the setting sun throws its last rays in the ring, remains in the memory of those, who have seen it, forever. It is also impossible to forget rocks, Castle of guile and love and Medovie waterfalls.
Rock of guile and love. A legend says that a rich and cruel prince Alikonov lived here very long ago. Its heart was like a piece of rusty iron. He knew love and compassion neither on strange people nor relatives, only his only daughter, who was brought up as a lonely flower among wild rocks and grey stones whose eyes were like stars, Dauta he loved and cherished. In her childish games Dauta knew only one boy – a son of an old herder. Running years quickly turned the adolescents into gay, slim, like poplars, youth and girl.
Friendship grew into love but it brought also a disaster with it. Prince Alikonov didn’t give his loved daughter in marriage. Prince Alikonov took care of his daughter Dauta for a rich and noble family. And then the young people decided to die together. Having glanced at his lover, the youth cried out: “Farewell! I am not afraid of dying with my lover”. The youth jumped down into the sinister precipice, in arms of the death. The daughter of the cruel prince was frightened, rushed back to the father’s house with words: “No, I won’t die!” A rich fiance was waiting for her in the castle. Since that time the rocks have been called Castle of guile and love.
Medovie waterfalls In its free fall from height of 18 m the waterfall forms thick jets, rushing down with noise. It is the main waterfall. Almost near it, behind the next turn of Alikonovka there is another one, even heavier waterfall, forming several cascades. Paths are laid by the waterfalls through rapids and rocks. In hot days near the waterfalls it is always cool and in the time when the sun look into the gorge, splashes of water play and sparkle by all colors of the rainbow. Nectareous grasses, from which, probably, the name of the waterfall is originated, grow here, on the slopes of the valley, for the whole summer. Proud of Kislovodsk is a medical resort park – a repeated winner of international competitions of monuments of garden-park art, an owner of the highest prizes for wonderful landscape architecture, delicate taste and great diligence of its creators. The first trees of the park were planted by soldiers of Kislovodsk fortress yet in 1823 and in 1829 young Pushkin walked about the young park. An old part of the park has many architectural sights: Narzan gallery, a resort exhibition, Lermontov’s ground, Mirror pond with a Glass jet is situated on the left bank of the Olkhovka river in 700 m from the Narzan gallery.
Valley of roses. A legitimate proud and one of main sights of the park. It is situated beside the temple of the air. This wonderful nook was created after the war owing to loving labour of Kislovodsk. Curtains of hundreds bushes of thirty sorts of roses stretch on the ground, area of which is about 5 ha.
And don’t forget to visit the famous zooexotarium. Behind the glasses of the window visitors may see more than 80 kinds of representatives of tropical undergrowths, dwellers of hot barkhans and the Amazonka delta. When you visit the unique and the only exhibit in the Caucasian Mineral Waters, fascinating images of popular television programs about the animal life.
Sometimes it seems as if courageous legendary Tarzan, beloved Maugli, heroes of absorbing adventure films are just abot to appear near the dwellers of emerald brushwoods. Visiting of the exhibition is not only a simple excursion into the far and unknown world but also large outreach activities of employees of the exotarium, directed to conservation and propagation of rare, vanishing species.
Circus is evenly considered one of the sights of Kislovodsk. After a great day, when twice Hero of the Soviet Union, space pilot Paul Romanovitch Popovitch, resting in Kislovodsk, cut a ribbon at the entrance of the hall of the circus, dwellers of the nearest cities and settlements of the Stavropol region and people, resting in all resorts of the Caucasian Mineral Waters, became its constant visitors. They saw Soviet and foreign circus collectives here. They saw also new works of our art, such as “Circus on ice”, “Carnival walks about the world”, and with offsprings of the oldest Russian animal trainer dynasties, national artist of the Russian Federation Tereza Durova and a junior member of the famous family – Jury Durov. The great Russian actor and director Constantin Sergeevitch Stanislavsky called the circus the most wonderful place in the world.
About a hundred various programs were shown, millions people visited it for these years. Many achievements are entered in its biography. It is impossible, even in a few words, to list all famous artists, who performed in Kislovodsk, Great variety of genres in the creative team of many thousands of state circuses allows to form always new, unique programs. Many and many attractions and circus acts are still waiting for the Kislovodsk arena.
Indications to treatment Cardiovascular system, nervous system diseases, respiratory apparatus diseases (chronic nonspecific diseases of lungs, bronchial asthma).And also coexisting illnesses of digestive apparatus, gynaecological disorders, urological diseases, musculoskeletal apparatus, ear, nose, throat diseases.
Soft climate, scumming narzan, the unique Resort park, stretching for many kilometers, - all these create a wonderful base for treating of many diseases and spending unforgettable holiday in Kislovodsk!